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How to Reference in Turabian

This resource provides information on how to reference, using the formatting of the Turabian 9th Edition, 2018. The Turabian style is a companion to the Chicago style manual, which is currently in its 17th edition.

Click on the links below for information on:


When you have read through the instructions and examples, you can check out: 

  1. Putting It All Together: An Example Bibliography and 
  2. This Sample Essay using Turabian from Liberty University.

Site: Alphacrucis College Moodle - Higher Education
Course: Study Skills
Book: How to Reference in Turabian
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Date: Saturday, 15 August 2020, 12:06 AM

This resource provides information on how to reference, using the formatting of the Turabian 9th Edition, 2018. The Turabian style is a companion to the Chicago style manual, which is currently in its 17th edition.

Click on the links below for information on:


When you have read through the instructions and examples, you can check out: 

  1. Putting It All Together: An Example Bibliography and 
  2. This Sample Essay using Turabian from Liberty University.


TO SAVE THIS MANUAL AS A PDF: 

Click on the  icon on the top-right of your screen and select "Print Book" to save the whole manual or "Print this chapter" to save one section. 

The information in this style guide is taken from:

Turabian, Kate L. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers. 9th ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2018.


Available as a reference book through the AC Library.

For further information about how to reference in Turabian, check out the Citation Quick Guide from the Turabian website.


General Notes
  • The bibliography should be sorted in alphabetical order by surname. References that do not include an author should be sorted by the first letter of the title.
  • Any designations such as Dr, Professor, Mrs, or academic qualifications etc., are omitted from your citation of the author
    • i.e. Grey, Jacqueline, not Grey, Dr Jacqueline
  • Title of the book is italicised
    • e.g. Ancient Near Eastern Thought and the Old Testament: Introducing the Conceptual World of the Hebrew Bible
  • The title of the book retains the original spelling
    • e.g. for the book, What Color is Your Parachute?: Guide to Job-Hunting Online, the spelling of 'colour' should not be altered to the Australian spelling
  •  Each word in the title of the book should be capitalised, except for the articles, prepositions and coordinating conjunctions
    • For example, the words: ‘the’, ‘and’, ‘for’, ‘but’, ‘or’, ‘it’, ‘a’, ‘is’, etc., are not capitalised within the title unless it is the first word of the title.
    • e.g. Reckoning with the Past: Historical Essays on American Evangelicalism from the Institute for the Study of American Evangelicals
  • Footnotes can include more than one reference within the same footnote. Placing footnotes side by side can be confusing (e.g. 12 could be 1 and 2, or 12) or distracting (e.g. if you want to cite five sources16,17,18,19,20,21). Instead, you can incorporate the references into the same footnote, separated by a semi-colon (;), e.g. 

1Grey, Them, Us & Me, 172; Greenberger, Networks for Research and Education, 35; Konz, "The Even Greater Commission," 338.

  • Do not include ISBN numbers, postcodes or copyright symbols etc.


Differences Between Footnotes and Bibliography

Note the differences in the examples given below.

  1. The author's name is in a different order.
  2. The facts of publication (place, publisher and date) ARE put in parentheses or brackets in the footnotes, but NOT in the bibliography.
  3. The footnotes use commas while the bibliography uses full stops.
  4. In the footnotes, you must include the page number where you found the information in that resource. By contrast, the only time page numbers appear in a bibliography is for a journal article or a book chapter (see instructions in this manual).

In the footnote

Jacqueline Grey, Them, Us and Me: How the Old Testament Speaks to People Today (Sydney, NSW: APPS & SCD Press, 2007), 45.

In the bibliography

Grey, Jacqueline. Them, Us and Me: How the Old Testament Speaks to People Today. Sydney, NSW: APPS & SCD Press, 2007.

The information below is quoted from: 

Barbeau, Elise. 2018. "What's New in Turabian 9th Edition." EasyBib, June 21, 2018. Accessed 16 June, 2020. https://www.easybib.com/guides/whats-new-in-turabian-9th-edition/


Changes in Author-Date Style

The publication year can now be repeated in some types of citations. 

The year can now be repeated in citations that include the publication month and day.

Jennings, Ralph. 2018. “Taiwan’s Once Mighty High-Tech Sector Is Falling Behind Because of Low Pay.” ForbesFebruary 15, 2018. Accessed April 23, 2018. https://www.forbes.com/sites/ralphjennings/2017/04/23/taiwans-once-mighty-high-tech-sector-is-falling-behind-because-of-low-pay/#69ad9e867b43


Changes in Notes-Bibliography Style

The treatment of a title in website citations now depends on the website.

If the website has a print counterpart, such as the website for a newspaper, the title should be in italics. If it does not, it should not be in italics.

Examples:

  • The New York Times
  • Gizmodo

Use of “ibid.” is no longer encouraged.

Ibid is the abbreviated version of the Latin word ibidem, meaning “in the same place.” Previously, if you used the same source two times or more in a note, you could use ibid instead of re-listing the same information.

Now, according to the new 9th edition, you should include a shortened footnote citation. To avoid repetition, the title of a work that has just been cited may be left out.

  1. Middlekauff, Glorious Revolution, 401–2.
  2. Middlekauff, 433.
  3. Jacobs, Women in Africa, 37–38.
  4. Jacobs, 201–2.

Using Footnotes

It is highly recommended that you utilise the automatic footnoting function in Word, rather than trying to manually create footnotes. 

NOTE: Footnotes can include more than one reference within the same footnote. Placing footnotes side by side can be confusing (e.g. 12 could be 1 and 2, or 12) or distracting (e.g. if you want to cite five sources16,17,18,19,20,21). Instead, you can incorporate the references into the same footnote, separated by a semi-colon (;), e.g. 

1Grey, Them, Us & Me, 172; Greenberger, Networks for Research and Education, 35; Konz, "The Even Greater Commission," 338.

Inserting Footnotes in Word

There are tools in your Word processing software to make footnoting easier. 

In Microsoft Word:

  1. Place your cursor where you want the footnote to go (usually, this will be at the end of the sentence).
  2. Click on "Insert" in the Toolbar menu.
  3. Scroll down to "Footnote..." and click "Insert."
  4. Follow the instructions provided in this manual to enter the correct bibliographical references.

You will then find that a superscript number has been inserted in your text, and that you can write in the footer of your document the citation details. 



Alternatively, click on the "References" tab and select "Insert Footnote".



This tool is very easy to use. Another feature of this tool is that if you cut and paste a sentence within your paper which has a footnote citation, it will automatically cut the footnote and paste it in the footer with the sentence. It will even re-order the superscript numbers for you and put the citation in the correct placement in the footer. 


To make referencing even easier, we highly recommend the use of referencing programs such as Zotero (instructions in the next section). Using this tool, you only need to insert all the correct information and it will generate the references correctly for you. View the next section How to Use Zotero for more instructions.

Zotero

An additional research tool is known as Zotero. Zotero is a free tool that helps you to collect, organise and cite your research sources. 

With the Word plugin, it is easy to keep track of all the resources you have used and format your footnotes and bibliography. 



How to Add a Citation Using Zotero

   1. First, select the correct "Item Type". In the example below, this is Thesis (see How to Reference Unpublished Material). The different item types will show different fields to fill in.

   2. Then, add the relevant data into the required fields. 


   3. Then, using the Microsoft Word Zotero Plugin, which links Word with your Zotero account, you can easily find and insert the relevant footnote by clicking on the Zotero tab and selecting "Add/Edit Citation"


Tip: After selecting the highlighted resource, simply type in a number (e.g. 65) and it will automatically be inserted as the page number. Alternatively, selected the down arrow next to the Zotero "Z" symbol for additional options, such as prefix, suffix or page number.


Further Recommendations

For example, in the menu options on EBSCOHost, clicking on "Export" opens the option of "Direct Export in RIS Format (e.g. ...Zotero)."

 


Zotero: Helpful Links

Referencing the Bible
i. In the footnotes

The first time you use a translation, include a footnote that gives the translation's formal name, including all the typical bibliographical details. If you are relying on one particular translation, you can make a note of this. If you do cite additional translations, the first instance of using that translation would require a similar footnote.

Jeremiah speaks of "great and unsearchable things you do not know" (Jer. 33:3 [ESV]).1 The omniscience of the Lord is further emphasised in the rhetorical question, "Who can hide in secret places so that I cannot see them?" (23:24 [NIV]).2

1 Unless otherwise noted, all biblical quotations use the English Standard Version (Wheaton, IL: Crossway, 2008).

2 New International Version. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Bible Publishers, 1978.

ii. In the text

When referring to a Bible verse, it is usually not necessary to quote the whole verse. By giving the Scripture reference and translation, the reader can look up the verse if necessary. 

The Scripture reference can be in-text in parentheses or brackets, e.g.

Paul is continually encouraging the early believers to stand firm in the faith (1 Cor. 16:13; Gal. 5:1; Eph. 6:14; 2 Thess. 2:15).

iii. In the bibliography

As a sacred text, the biblical translation does not need to be included in the bibliography.


Additional Information

  • When referring to a book in the main text, it should not be in italics or underlined, e.g.

The prophet Nathan confronts King David in 2 Samuel 12.

The identity of the author of the book of Hebrews is uncertain.

  • When referencing different verses from the same book, you don't need to repeat the book's name if the previous reference was from the same book.

Paul describes actions without love as "a resounding gong or a clanging cymbal" (1 Cor. 13:1, NIV), "nothing" (2) and as gaining nothing (3). John equates love with God in 1 John 4:16, and Paul says that "the greatest of these is love" (1 Cor. 13:13).

Abbreviations of the Books of the Bible

Old Testament (OT)

Full Name

Trad.

Shorter

 

Full Name

Traditional

Shorter

Genesis

Gen

Gn

Song of Solomon (Song of Songs)

Song of Sol.

Sg

Exodus

Exod

Ex

Isaiah

Isa

Is

Leviticus

Lev

Lv

Jeremiah

Jer

Jer

Numbers

Num

Nm

Lamentations

Lam

Lam

Deuteronomy

Deut

Dt

Ezekiel

Ezek

Ez

Joshua

Josh

Jo

Daniel

Dan

Dn

Judges

Judg

Jgs

Hosea

Hosea

Hos

Ruth

Ruth

Ru

Joel

Joel

Jl

1 & 2 Samuel

1 & 2 Sam

1 & 2 Sm

Amos

Amos

Am

1 & 2 Kings

1 & 2 Kings

1 & 2 Kgs

Obadiah

Obad

Ob

1 & 2 Chronicles

1 & 2 Chron

1 & 2 Chr

Jonah

Jon

Jon

Ezra

Ezra

Ezr

Micah

Mic

Mi

Nehemiah

Neh

Neh

Nahum

Nah

Na

Esther

Esther

Est

Habakkuk

Hab

Hb

Job

Job

 

Zephaniah

Zeph

Zep

Psalms

Ps (plural Pss)

Ps (plural Pss)

Haggai

Hag

Hg

Proverbs

Prov

Prv

Zechariah

Zech

Zec

Ecclesiastes

Eccles

Eccl

Malachi

Mal

Mal


New Testament (NT)

Full Name

Traditional

Shorter

 

Full Name

Traditional

Shorter

Matthew

Matt

Mt

1 & 2 Thessalonians

1 & 2 Thess

1 & 2 Thes

Mark

Mark

Mk

1 & 2 Timothy

1 & 2 Tim

1 & 2 Tm

Luke

Luke

Lk

Titus

Titus

Ti

John

John

Jn

Philemon

Philem

Phlm

Acts

Acts

Acts

Hebrews

Heb

Heb

Romans

Rom

Rom

James

James

Jas

1 & 2 Corinthians

1 & 2 Cor

1 & 2 Cor

1 & 2 Peter

1 & 2 Pet

1 & 2 Pt

Galatians

Gal

Gal

1, 2 & 3 John

1, 2 & 3 John

1, 2 & 3 Jn

Ephesians

Eph

Eph

Jude

Jude

Jude

Philippians

Phil

Phil

Revelation

Rev

Rv

Colossians

Col

Col

 

 

 


Referencing Books
For books, the full reference must include the following information in the order shown: 

  • Name of author(s);
  • Title and (if any) subtitle - in italics
  • Name of editor, compiler or translator (if any);
  • Number of edition, other than the first; 
  • Place of Publication;
  • Name of Publisher;
  • Date of Publication;
  • Page numbers - only in footnotes.

Books with one to three authors

The most common reference you will cite is a book with one to three authors. 

i. First citation in the footnotes

Jacqueline Grey, Them, Us and Me: How the Old Testament Speaks to People Today (Sydney, NSW: APPS & SCD Press, 2007), 45. 

Mark Hutchinson and K. Handley, A Humane Reckoning: From Accounting to Accountability at Macquarie, 1964-2014 (North Ryde: Editorial Collective, 2014), 17. 

ii. Subsequent citations in the footnotes are shortened

Grey, Them, Us and Me, 45. 

Hutchinson and Handley, A Humane Reckoning, 17.

iii. In the bibliography

Grey, Jacqueline. Them, Us and Me: How the Old Testament Speaks to People Today. Sydney, NSW: APPS & SCD Press, 2007. 

Hutchinson, Mark and K. Handley. A Humane Reckoning: From Accounting to Accountability at Macquarie, 1964-2014. North Ryde: Editorial Collective, 2014. 

Books with more than three authors

If the work has more than three authors it is normal to cite the first author, and to follow it with the Latin term ‘et al.’ (meaning “and others”). 

i. First citation in the footnotes

Martin Greenberger et al., Networks for Research and Education: Sharing of Computer Information Resources Nationwide (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1974), 54.  

ii. Subsequent citations in the footnotes are shortened

Greenberger et al., Networks for Research and Education: Sharing of Computer Information Resources Nationwide54. 

iii. In the bibliography

Greenberger, M., et al. Networks for Research and Education: Sharing of Computer Information Resources Nationwide. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1974. 


Books with author and editor/translator

If the book has an author as well as an editor/s or translator, you need to indicate this with the abbreviation “ed.” or "trans."

(NOTE: This is different from a chapter in an edited volume. See section: Chapter in an Edited Volume)

i. First citation in the footnotes

Walter Brueggemann, The Psalms and the Life of Faith, ed. Patrick D. Miller (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1995), 29.  

Wolfhart Pannenberg, Basic Questions in Theology: Volume One, trans. George H. Kelm (London: SCM, 1970), 11–12. 

ii. Subsequent citations in the footnotes are shortened

Brueggemann, The Psalms and the Life of Faith, 26. 

Pannenberg, Basic Questions in Theology, 13.

iii. In the bibliography

Brueggemann, Walter. The Psalms and the Life of Faith. Edited by Patrick D. Miller. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1995.

Pannenberg, Wolfhart. Basic Questions in Theology: Volume One. Translated by George H. Kelm. London: SCM, 1970. 

How to Cite a Chapter in a Book

When a book is a collection of essays or chapters, written by different authors and compiled by an editor or editors, reference it is as follows. 

i. First citation in the footnotes

Lily Arasaratnam, “Communication and Expectations: Differences Between Men and Women Explored,” in Raising Women Leaders: Perspectives on Liberating Women in Pentecostal and Charismatic Contexts, ed. Shane Clifton and Jacqueline Grey (Sydney, NSW: APS, 2009), 236. 

ii. Subsequent citations in the footnotes are shortened

Arasaratnam, "Communication and Expectations," 236.

iii. In the bibliography

Arasaratnam, Lily. “Communication and Expectations: Differences Between Men and Women Explored.” In Raising Women Leaders: Perspectives on Liberating Women in Pentecostal and Charismatic Contexts. Edited by Shane Clifton and Jacqueline Grey, 236-253. Sydney, NSW: APS, 2009.

NOTE: You must include the page numbers of the whole chapter in the bibliography, but in the footnote, only the page where the information referred to is to be found.

How to Cite the whole Edited Volume

List the editor(s) first.

i. First citation in the footnotes

Denise A. Austin, Jacqueline Grey and Paul W. Lewis (eds.), Asia Pacific Pentecostalism (Leiden: Brill, 2019), 124. 

ii. Subsequent citations in the footnotes are shortened

Austin, Grey and Lewis, Asia Pacific Pentecostalism, 124.

iii. In the bibliography

Austin, Denise A., Jacqueline Grey and Paul W. Lewis (eds.), Asia Pacific Pentecostalism. Leiden: Brill, 2019.

Referencing a Dictionary or Encyclopaedia

Dictionary and encyclopaedia articles can either be signed or unsigned, and are generally treated the same as citing chapters in a book. 

i. If the author's name is given

D. A. Austin, “Mongolia,” in Encyclopedia of Christianity in the Global South, ed. Mark A. Lamport (Lanham, MA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2018), 537.

Austin, "Mongolia," 537.

ii. If no author's name is given

“Mongolia,” in Encyclopedia of Christianity in the Global South, ed. Mark A. Lamport (Lanham, MA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2018), 537. 

"Mongolia," 537.

iii. In the bibliography

Austin, D. A. “Mongolia.” In Encyclopedia of Christianity in the Global South. Edited by Mark A. Lamport, 536–539. Lanham, MA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2018. 

“Mongolia.” In Encyclopedia of Christianity in the Global South. Edited by Mark A. Lamport, 536-539. Lanham, MA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2018. 

NOTE: If a dictionary or encyclopaedia entry is unsigned, it is sorted in the bibliography alphabetically by the first letter of the article title.

Referencing eBooks

Many of us now prefer to read via electronic readers, such as ProQuest eBooks or Kindles. When citing these sources the general principles noted in other sections apply. In addition, for books consulted online, you should include a URL or the name of the database, and for other types of e-books, give the format. Where there are no fixed page numbers available, give the section title, chapter or other numbers in the footnotes.

i. First citation in the footnotes

Fyodor Dostoevsky, Crime and Punishment, trans. Constance Garnett, ed. William Allan Neilson (New York, NY: P. F. Collier & Son, 1917), 444, https://archive.org/details/crimepunishment00dostuoft.

Beth Felker-Jones, Practicing Christian Doctrine: An Introduction to Thinking and Living Theologically (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2014), 55, ProQuest Ebrary.

Phyllis Trible, God and the Rhetoric of Sexuality (Philadelphia, PA: Fortress, 1978), chap. 4, Kindle, location 288-90.

ii. Subsequent citations in the footnotes are shortened

Dostoevsky, Crime and Punishment, 505.

Felker-Jones, Practicing Christian Doctrine, 72.

Trible, God and the Rhetoric of Sexuality, chap. 3 [AND/OR] location 288-90. 

iii. In the bibliography

Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment. Translated by Constance Garnett. Edited by William Allan Neilson. New York, NY: P. F. Collier & Son, 1917. https://archive.org/details/crimepunishment00dostuoft.

Felker-Jones, Beth. Practicing Christian Doctrine: An Introduction to Thinking and Living Theologically. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2014. ProQuest Ebrary.

Trible, Phyllis. God and the Rhetoric of Sexuality. Philadelphia, PA: Fortress, 1978. Kindle.

Referencing Journal Articles

For journals, the full reference should include the following information in the order shown, following similar principles to the  

  • Name of author(s);
  • Title of the article - in "inverted commas";
  • Title of the periodical or journal - in italics
  • Volume and issue numbers;
  • Date of publication - in (brackets); 
  • Page numbers.

i. First citation in the footnotes

DJ Konz, "The Even Greater Commission: Relating the Great Commission to the Missio Dei, and Human Agency to Divine Activity, in Mission," Missiology: An International Review 46, no. 4 (2018), 338.

Lyn M. Kidson, "Fasting, Bodily Care, and the Widows of 1 Timothy 5:3–15," Early Christianity 11 (2020), 14.

David Graieg, review of Communal Reading in the Time of Jesus, by Brian Wright, Journal of Gospels and Acts Research 2 (2018), 137. 

ii. Subsequent citations in the footnotes are shortened

Konz, "The Even Greater Commission," 338.

Kidson, "Fasting, Bodily Care, and the Widows of 1 Timothy 5:3-15," 14.

Graieg, review of Communal Reading in the Time of Jesus, 137.

iii. In the bibliography

Graieg, David. Review of Communal Reading in the Time of Jesus, by Brian Wright. Journal of Gospels and Acts Research 2 (2018): 135–137. 

Kidson, Lyn M. "Fasting, Bodily Care, and the Widows of 1 Timothy 5:3–15." Early Christianity 11 (2020), 1-15.

Konz, DJ. "The Even Greater Commission: Relating the Great Commission to the Missio Dei, and Human Agency to Divine Activity, in Mission." Missiology: An International Review 46, no. 4 (2018): 333-349.

Referencing Websites

Today there are a lot more references available online. BE CAREFUL which websites you choose to reference. Make sure it is a credible source. Do NOT reference Wikipedia, as the content on the site can be edited by anyone so there is no guarantee about the credibility of the information.

When citing these sources the general principles noted above apply. NOTE: You also need to include the URL and, if the source does not list the date of publication or date last modified, include the date you accessed the website (this helps to show when the site was active).

  • Name of author(s) (if given);
  • Title and (if any) subtitle - in "inverted commas";
  • Name of website or site owner - only in italics if there is an associated print version, e.g. The New York Times, but Gizmodo;
  • Date of publication or revision (if given) OR date of access (if undated);
  • URL.

i. First citation in the footnotes

Jacqueline Service, "The Australian Election: A Moment or a Movement?" Tear Australia, accessed June 17, 2020, https://www.tear.org.au/get-involved/advocacy/australian-aid/the-australian-election-a-moment-or-a-movement

Daniel Thornton, "What On Earth Are We Singing? 2019 Report Gives Snapshot," Eternity, January 20, 2020, https://www.eternitynews.com.au/culture/what-on-earth-are-we-singing-2019-report-gives-snapshot/ 

ii. Subsequent citations are shortened

Service, "The Australian Election"

Thornton, "What On Earth Are We Singing?"

iii. In the bibliography

Service, Jacqueline. "The Australian Election: A Moment or a Movement?" Tear Australia. Accessed June 17, 2020. https://www.tear.org.au/get-involved/advocacy/australian-aid/the-australian-election-a-moment-or-a-movement

Thornton, Daniel. "What On Earth Are We Singing? 2019 Report Gives Snapshot." Eternity. January 20, 2020. https://www.eternitynews.com.au/culture/what-on-earth-are-we-singing-2019-report-gives-snapshot/ 

Referencing Unpublished Material

You will sometimes need to reference material that hasn't been published, such as papers presented at conferences or personal communications, such as interviews. 

NOTE: Personal communications usually only need to be cited in the text or in a footnote only and are rarely included in a bibliography.

i. First citation in the footnotes

Caroline Batchelder, "Yahweh Knows the (Saving) Way: Taking Yahweh’s Way through Tôrâ in the Psalter, beginning with Psalm 1" (paper presented at the Tyndale Fellowship Biblical Theology Study group, Cambridge, England, Jun 26 2019).

Interview with Stephen Fogarty, June 12, 2018.

ii. Subsequent citations are shortened

Batchelder, "Yahweh Knows the (Saving) Way"

Interview with Stephen Fogarty, June 12, 2018.

iii. In the bibliography

Batchelder, Caroline. "Yahweh Knows the (Saving) Way: Taking Yahweh’s Way through Tôrâ in the Psalter, beginning with Psalm 1." Paper presented at the Tyndale Fellowship Biblical Theology Study group. Cambridge, England, Jun 26 2019.

Referencing Theses/Dissertations

A few of our databases will include results for Masters or PhD theses. These are almost always cutting-edge work, but be aware that they are not peer-reviewed, so you should check whether the author has published their work.

For example, you may come across:

Hovey, Kevin G. "Guiding Light: Contributions of Alan R. Tippett Toward the Development and Dissemination of Twentieth-Century Missiology." PhD diss., Alphacrucis College, Sydney, 2017.

However, Hovey has since published his thesis into a book, and so represents the more current form of his research on the topic:

Hovey, Kevin G. Guiding Light: Contributions of Alan R. Tippett Toward the Development and Dissemination of Twentieth-Century Missiology. Eugene, OR: Pickwick Publications, 2019.

Furthermore, be aware that not all theses are of similarly high quality, so be judicious in how you use them.

i. First citation in the footnotes

Narelle Jane Coetzee, “Wild God in the Wilderness: Why Does Yahweh Choose to Appear in the Wilderness in the Book of Exodus?” (PhD diss., University of Birmingham, 2016), 239.

ii. Subsequent citations are shortened

Coetzee, “Wild God in the Wilderness,” 2.

iii. In the bibliography

Coetzee, Narelle Jane. “Wild God in the Wilderness: Why Does Yahweh Choose to Appear in the Wilderness in the Book of Exodus?” PhD diss., University of Birmingham, 2016.

Referencing Lecture Notes

It is usually preferable that students take what they have heard and learned in class and find the information in published, peer-reviewed sources. However, sometimes there is occasion to reference lecture notes. As these are classified as "Unpublished," you can use a similar format to other unpublished material. Below are examples of lecture notes from online classes (Grant Buchanan example) and face-to-face (Dean O'Keefe example).

i. First citation in the footnotes

Grant Buchanan, “Topic 10 Video 5, What is the Church?” (lecture, THE001 Moodle, Alphacrucis College), accessed 18 June 2020, https://echo360.org.au/media/2fa39464-38dd-4aac-8c48-c41bfd5f6313/public

Grant Buchanan, “What is the Church?” (lecture notes, THE001 Moodle, Alphacrucis College).

Dean O'Keefe, "Vision and Strategic Planning" (lecture, Introduction to Leadership at Alphacrucis College, Adelaide, SA, May 27, 2020).

Dean O'Keefe, "Vision and Strategic Planning" (lecture notes, Introduction to Leadership at Alphacrucis College, Adelaide, SA, May 27, 2020).

ii. Subsequent citations are shortened

Buchanan, “Topic 10 Video 5, What is the Church?”

Buchanan, “What is the Church?”

O'Keefe, "Vision and Strategic Planning" (lecture).

O'Keefe, "Vision and Strategic Planning" (lecture notes).

iii. In the bibliography

Buchanan, Grant. “Topic 10 Video 5, What is the Church?” Lecture, THE001 Moodle from Alphacrucis College. Accessed 18 June 2020. https://echo360.org.au/media/2fa39464-38dd-4aac-8c48-c41bfd5f6313/public

Buchanan, Grant. “What is the Church?” Lecture notes, THE001 Moodle, Alphacrucis College.

O'Keefe, Dean. "Vision and Strategic Planning." Lecture, LEA001 Introduction to Leadership at Alphacrucis College. Adelaide, SA, May 27, 2020.

O'Keefe, Dean. "Vision and Strategic Planning." Lecture notes, LEA001 Introduction to Leadership. Alphacrucis College, Adelaide, SA, May 27, 2020.

Referencing Past Essays

In some rare occasions, you may find that you need to quote something that you have written previously in an essay, particularly in VET-level studies. In these instances, you are still required to reference the quotation as you would another resource. 

Note, however, that in cases where you have a minimum number of required references for the bibliography, this will not count as a resource.

i. First citation in the footnotes

Emma Austin, “Beyond the Face: A Case for Early Orthodox Iconography” (RES602 Research Project, Alphacrucis College, 2016).

ii. Subsequent citations are shortened

Austin, “Beyond the Face”

iii. In the bibliography

Austin, Emma. “Beyond the Face: A Case for Early Orthodox Iconography.” RES602 Research Project, Alphacrucis College, 2016.

Referencing Films

Occasionally you may want to reference a film, for subjects such as Theology and Film or Cultural Hermeneutics. The way to do this is as follows: 

  • Name of film - in italics;
  • Directed by First Name Last Name;
  • Studio;
  • Year of release; 
  • Medium - include the URL or database name if online.

i. First citation in the footnotes

Jesus of Montreal, directed by Denys Arcand (Centre National de la Cinématographie (CNC), 1989), DVD.

The Two Popes, directed by Fernando Meirelles (Netflix: 2019), https://www.netflix.com.

ii. Subsequent citations

Jesus of Montreal, directed by Denys Arcand (Centre National de la Cinématographie (CNC), 1989), DVD. 

The Two Popes, directed by Fernando Meirelles (Netflix: 2019), https://www.netflix.com.

iii. In the bibliography

Jesus of Montreal. Directed by Denys Arcand. Centre National de la Cinématographie (CNC), 1989. DVD.

The Two Popes. Directed by Fernando Meirelles. Netflix: 2019. https://www.netflix.com.

Referencing Youtube

Occasionally you may need to reference a clip you watched on Youtube. 

  • Name of channel - NOTE: only in italics if it has a print counterpart, e.g. Wall Street Journal, but Alphacrucis College;
  • Title of video - in "inverted commas";
  • Date of publishing;
  • Video
  • Length of video
  • Short URL.

NOTE: The name of the channel should be as it appears on Youtube, not according to standard capitalisation and grammar rules, so if it is in all lowercase or several words running together, write it as it appears (e.g. NoCAT NoLiFE)

i. First citation in the footnotes

Alphacrucis College, “Preaching in an Online World,” May 18, 2020, video, 50:42, https://youtu.be/yWrM-X50RsU.

ii. Subsequent citations are shortened

Alphacrucis College, “Preaching in an Online World”

iii. In the bibliography

Alphacrucis College. “Preaching in an Online World.” May 18, 2020. Video, 50:42. https://youtu.be/yWrM-X50RsU.


Where to find information on a Youtube video:


Referencing an Author Cited in a Secondary Text

You may want to insert a quote or summarise the view of a particular scholar found in a text not written by that particular person. 

For example, you might come across Frank Macchia quoted in David Perry's book, Spirit Baptism: The Pentecostal Experience in Theological Focus, and may want to keep Macchia's quote, which reads, "The Spirit liberates creation from within history toward new possibilities for free, eschatological existence."

It is recommended that you try to locate the original source, but if it is unavailable, both the original and secondary source must be listed. Distinguish the secondary text (the resource you are using) from the original source (that is being quoted) with the phrase "quoted in". 

i. First citation in the footnotes

This refers to the first time either the secondary or the original source is referenced.

Frank D. Macchia, Baptized in the Spirit: A Global Pentecostal Theology (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2006), 97, quoted in David Perry, Spirit Baptism: The Pentecostal Experience in Theological Focus (Leiden: Brill, 2017), 154.

ii. Subsequent citations in the footnotes are shortened

Frank D. Macchia, Baptized in the Spirit: A Global Pentecostal Theology (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2006), 97, quoted in Perry, Spirit Baptism, 154.

Macchia, Baptized in the Spirit, 97, quoted in David Perry, Spirit Baptism: The Pentecostal Experience in Theological Focus (Leiden: Brill, 2017), 154.

Macchia, Baptized in the Spirit, 97, quoted in Perry, Spirit Baptism, 154.

iii. In the bibliography

Perry, David. Spirit Baptism: The Pentecostal Experience in Theological Focus. Leiden: Brill, 2017.

The bibliography should only contain the resource that you referred to. Only include the original source information in the bibliography if you actually found and read the source itself - in which case, you will reference both separately as per normal.

An Example Bibliography: 

A bibliography is the final list of all the sources referred to in your essay. As a rule of thumb, for a 2000-word essay, you should have at least 10 references in the bibliography (i.e. approx 1 reference per 200 words of assignment word count). 

Some Important Information

  • You should only list sources that you have referenced in the essay, not ones that you looked at but didn't use.
  • The information is ordered in alphabetical order by surname (or title if there is no author). 
  • No page numbers are required, except for journal articles or separately authored chapters within an edited book (see Chapter in an Edited Volume and How to Reference Journal Articles).
  • The resources do not need to be sorted according to type.
  • Do not use bullet points (either numbers or dots).
  • The bibliography should begin on a separate page at the end of the essay and have the heading "Bibliography"


Bibliography

Alphacrucis College. “Preaching in an Online World.” May 18, 2020. Video, 50:42. https://youtu.be/yWrM-X50RsU.

Arasaratnam, Lily. “Communication and Expectations: Differences Between Men and Women Explored.” In Raising Women Leaders: Perspectives on Liberating Women in Pentecostal and Charismatic Contexts. Edited by Shane Clifton and Jacqueline Grey, 236-253. Sydney, NSW: APS, 2009.

Austin, Denise A., Jacqueline Grey and Paul W. Lewis (eds.), Asia Pacific Pentecostalism. Leiden: Brill, 2019.

Austin, D. A. “Mongolia.” In Encyclopedia of Christianity in the Global South. Edited by Mark A. Lamport, 536–539. Lanham, MA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2018. 

Austin, Emma. “Beyond the Face: A Case for Early Orthodox Iconography.” RES602 Research Project, Alphacrucis College, 2016.

Batchelder, Caroline. "Yahweh Knows the (Saving) Way: Taking Yahweh’s Way through Tôrâ in the Psalter, beginning with Psalm 1." Paper presented at the Tyndale Fellowship Biblical Theology Study group. Cambridge, England, Jun 26 2019.

Brueggemann, Walter. The Psalms and the Life of Faith. Edited by Patrick D. Miller. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1995.

Buchanan, Grant. “Topic 10 Video 5, What is the Church?” Lecture, Christian Worldview from Alphacrucis College. Accessed 18 June 2020. https://echo360.org.au/media/2fa39464-38dd-4aac-8c48-c41bfd5f6313/public

Buchanan, Grant. “What is the Church?” Lecture notes, THE001 Moodle, Alphacrucis College.

Coetzee, Narelle Jane. “Wild God in the Wilderness: Why Does Yahweh Choose to Appear in the Wilderness in the Book of Exodus?” PhD diss., University of Birmingham, 2016.

Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment. Translated by Constance Garnett. Edited by William Allan Neilson. New York, NY: P. F. Collier & Son, 1917. https://archive.org/details/crimepunishment00dostuoft.

Felker-Jones, Beth. Practicing Christian Doctrine: An Introduction to Thinking and Living Theologically. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2014. ProQuest Ebrary.

Graieg, David. Review of Communal Reading in the Time of Jesus, by Brian Wright. Journal of Gospels and Acts Research 2 (2018): 135–137. 

Greenberger, M., et al. Networks for Research and Education: Sharing of Computer Information Resources Nationwide. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1974. 

Grey, Jacqueline. Them, Us and Me: How the Old Testament Speaks to People Today. Sydney, NSW: APPS & SCD Press, 2007. 

Hovey, Kevin G. "Guiding Light: Contributions of Alan R. Tippett Toward the Development and Dissemination of Twentieth-Century Missiology." PhD diss., Alphacrucis College, Sydney, 2017.

Hovey, Kevin G. Guiding Light: Contributions of Alan R. Tippett Toward the Development and Dissemination of Twentieth-Century Missiology. Eugene, OR: Pickwick Publications, 2019.

Hutchinson, Mark and K. Handley. A Humane Reckoning: From Accounting to Accountability at Macquarie, 1964-2014. North Ryde: Editorial Collective, 2014. 

Jesus of Montreal. Directed by Denys Arcand. Centre National de la Cinématographie (CNC), 1989. DVD.

Kidson, Lyn M. "Fasting, Bodily Care, and the Widows of 1 Timothy 5:3–15." Early Christianity 11 (2020), 1-15.

Konz, DJ. "The Even Greater Commission: Relating the Great Commission to the Missio Dei, and Human Agency to Divine Activity, in Mission." Missiology: An International Review 46, no. 4 (2018): 333-349.

“Mongolia.” In Encyclopedia of Christianity in the Global South. Edited by Mark A. Lamport, 536-539. Lanham, MA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2018. 

O'Keefe, Dean. "Vision and Strategic Planning." Lecture, Introduction to Leadership at Alphacrucis College. Adelaide, SA, May 27, 2020.

O'Keefe, Dean. "Vision and Strategic Planning." Lecture notes, LEA001 Introduction to Leadership. Alphacrucis College, Adelaide, SA, May 27, 2020.

Pannenberg, Wolfhart. Basic Questions in Theology: Volume One. Translated by George H. Kelm. London: SCM, 1970. 

Perry, David. Spirit Baptism: The Pentecostal Experience in Theological Focus. Leiden: Brill, 2017.

Service, Jacqueline. "The Australian Election: A Moment or a Movement?" Tear Australia. Accessed June 17, 2020. https://www.tear.org.au/get-involved/advocacy/australian-aid/the-australian-election-a-moment-or-a-movement

Thornton, Daniel. "What On Earth Are We Singing? 2019 Report Gives Snapshot." Eternity. January 20, 2020. https://www.eternitynews.com.au/culture/what-on-earth-are-we-singing-2019-report-gives-snapshot/ 

Trible, Phyllis. God and the Rhetoric of Sexuality. Philadelphia, PA: Fortress, 1978. Kindle.

The Two Popes. Directed by Fernando Meirelles. Netflix: 2019. https://www.netflix.com.