How to Reference in Turabian

This resource provides information on how to reference, using the formatting of the Turabian 9th Edition, 2018 (notes-bibliography). The Turabian style is a companion to the Chicago style manual, which is currently in its 17th edition.

When you have read through the instructions and examples, you can check out this Sample Essay using Turabian from Liberty University.

The information below is quoted from: 

Barbeau, Elise. 2018. "What's New in Turabian 9th Edition." EasyBib, June 21, 2018. Accessed 16 June, 2020.

Changes in Author-Date Style

The publication year can now be repeated in some types of citations. 

The year can now be repeated in citations that include the publication month and day.

Jennings, Ralph. 2018. “Taiwan’s Once Mighty High-Tech Sector Is Falling Behind Because of Low Pay.” ForbesFebruary 15, 2018. Accessed April 23, 2018.

Changes in Notes-Bibliography Style

The treatment of a title in website citations now depends on the website.

If the website has a print counterpart, such as the website for a newspaper, the title should be in italics. If it does not, it should not be in italics.


  • The New York Times
  • Gizmodo

Use of “ibid.” is no longer encouraged.

Ibid is the abbreviated version of the Latin word ibidem, meaning “in the same place.” Previously, if you used the same source two times or more in a note, you could use ibid instead of re-listing the same information.

Now, according to the new 9th edition, you should include a shortened footnote citation. To avoid repetition, the title of a work that has just been cited may be left out.

  1. Middlekauff, Glorious Revolution, 401–2.
  2. Middlekauff, 433.
  3. Jacobs, Women in Africa, 37–38.
  4. Jacobs, 201–2.