How to Reference in Turabian

This resource provides information on how to reference, using the formatting of the Turabian 9th Edition, 2018 (notes-bibliography). The Turabian style is a companion to the Chicago style manual, which is currently in its 17th edition.

When you have read through the instructions and examples, you can check out this Sample Essay using Turabian from Liberty University.

Referencing Websites

Today there are a lot more references available online. BE CAREFUL which websites you choose to reference. Make sure it is a credible source. Do NOT reference Wikipedia, as the content on the site can be edited by anyone so there is no guarantee about the credibility of the information.

When citing these sources the general principles noted above apply. NOTE: You also need to include the URL and, if the source does not list the date of publication or date last modified, include the date you accessed the website (this helps to show when the site was active).

  • Name of author(s) (if given);
  • Title and (if any) subtitle - in "inverted commas";
  • Name of website or site owner - only in italics if there is an associated print version, e.g. The New York Times, but Gizmodo;
  • Date of publication or revision (if given) OR date of access (if undated);
  • URL.

i. First citation in the footnotes

Jacqueline Service, "The Australian Election: A Moment or a Movement?" Tear Australia, accessed June 17, 2020,

Daniel Thornton, "What On Earth Are We Singing? 2019 Report Gives Snapshot," Eternity, January 20, 2020, 

ii. Subsequent citations are shortened

Service, "The Australian Election"

Thornton, "What On Earth Are We Singing?"

iii. In the bibliography

Service, Jacqueline. "The Australian Election: A Moment or a Movement?" Tear Australia. Accessed June 17, 2020.

Thornton, Daniel. "What On Earth Are We Singing? 2019 Report Gives Snapshot." Eternity. January 20, 2020.