How to Reference in Turabian

This resource provides information on how to reference, using the formatting of the Turabian 9th Edition, 2018 (notes-bibliography). The Turabian style is a companion to the Chicago style manual, which is currently in its 17th edition.

When you have read through the instructions and examples, you can check out this Sample Essay using Turabian from Liberty University.

Referencing eBooks

Many of us now prefer to read via electronic readers, such as ProQuest eBooks or Kindles. When citing these sources the general principles noted in other sections apply. In addition, for books consulted online, you should include a URL or the name of the database, and for other types of e-books, give the format. Where there are no fixed page numbers available, give the section title, chapter or other numbers in the footnotes.

i. First citation in the footnotes

Fyodor Dostoevsky, Crime and Punishment, trans. Constance Garnett, ed. William Allan Neilson (New York, NY: P. F. Collier & Son, 1917), 444,

Beth Felker-Jones, Practicing Christian Doctrine: An Introduction to Thinking and Living Theologically (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2014), 55, ProQuest Ebrary.

Phyllis Trible, God and the Rhetoric of Sexuality (Philadelphia, PA: Fortress, 1978), chap. 4, Kindle, location 288-90.

ii. Subsequent citations in the footnotes are shortened

Dostoevsky, Crime and Punishment, 505.

Felker-Jones, Practicing Christian Doctrine, 72.

Trible, God and the Rhetoric of Sexuality, chap. 3 [AND/OR] location 288-90. 

iii. In the bibliography

Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment. Translated by Constance Garnett. Edited by William Allan Neilson. New York, NY: P. F. Collier & Son, 1917.

Felker-Jones, Beth. Practicing Christian Doctrine: An Introduction to Thinking and Living Theologically. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2014. ProQuest Ebrary.

Trible, Phyllis. God and the Rhetoric of Sexuality. Philadelphia, PA: Fortress, 1978. Kindle.