How to Reference in Turabian

This resource provides information on how to reference, using the formatting of the Turabian 9th Edition, 2018 (notes-bibliography). The Turabian style is a companion to the Chicago style manual, which is currently in its 17th edition.

When you have read through the instructions and examples, you can check out this Sample Essay using Turabian from Liberty University.

Referencing Films

Occasionally you may want to reference a film, for subjects such as Theology and Film or Cultural Hermeneutics. The way to do this is as follows: 

  • Name of film - in italics;
  • Directed by First Name Last Name;
  • Studio;
  • Year of release; 
  • Medium - include the URL or database name if online.

i. First citation in the footnotes

Jesus of Montreal, directed by Denys Arcand (Centre National de la Cinématographie (CNC), 1989), DVD.

The Two Popes, directed by Fernando Meirelles (Netflix: 2019), https://www.netflix.com.

ii. Subsequent citations

Jesus of Montreal, directed by Denys Arcand (Centre National de la Cinématographie (CNC), 1989), DVD. 

The Two Popes, directed by Fernando Meirelles (Netflix: 2019), https://www.netflix.com.

iii. In the bibliography

Jesus of Montreal. Directed by Denys Arcand. Centre National de la Cinématographie (CNC), 1989. DVD.

The Two Popes. Directed by Fernando Meirelles. Netflix: 2019. https://www.netflix.com.