How to Reference in Turabian

This resource provides information on how to reference, using the formatting of the Turabian 9th Edition, 2018 (notes-bibliography). The Turabian style is a companion to the Chicago style manual, which is currently in its 17th edition.

When you have read through the instructions and examples, you can check out this Sample Essay using Turabian from Liberty University.

An Example Bibliography: 

A bibliography is the final list of all the sources referred to in your essay. As a rule of thumb, for a 2000-word essay, you should have at least 10 references in the bibliography (i.e. approx 1 reference per 200 words of assignment word count). 

Some Important Information

  • You should only list sources that you have referenced in the essay, not ones that you looked at but didn't use.
  • The information is ordered in alphabetical order by surname (or title if there is no author). 
  • No page numbers are required, except for journal articles or separately authored chapters within an edited book (see Chapter in an Edited Volume and How to Reference Journal Articles).
  • The resources do not need to be sorted according to type.
  • Do not use bullet points (either numbers or dots).
  • The bibliography should begin on a separate page at the end of the essay and have the heading "Bibliography"


Alphacrucis College. “Preaching in an Online World.” May 18, 2020. Video, 50:42.

Arasaratnam, Lily. “Communication and Expectations: Differences Between Men and Women Explored.” In Raising Women Leaders: Perspectives on Liberating Women in Pentecostal and Charismatic Contexts. Edited by Shane Clifton and Jacqueline Grey, 236-253. Sydney, NSW: APS, 2009.

Austin, Denise A., Jacqueline Grey and Paul W. Lewis (eds.), Asia Pacific Pentecostalism. Leiden: Brill, 2019.

Austin, D. A. “Mongolia.” In Encyclopedia of Christianity in the Global South. Edited by Mark A. Lamport, 536–539. Lanham, MA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2018. 

Austin, Emma. “Beyond the Face: A Case for Early Orthodox Iconography.” RES602 Research Project, Alphacrucis College, 2016.

Batchelder, Caroline. "Yahweh Knows the (Saving) Way: Taking Yahweh’s Way through Tôrâ in the Psalter, beginning with Psalm 1." Paper presented at the Tyndale Fellowship Biblical Theology Study group. Cambridge, England, Jun 26 2019.

Brueggemann, Walter. The Psalms and the Life of Faith. Edited by Patrick D. Miller. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1995.

Buchanan, Grant. “Topic 10 Video 5, What is the Church?” Lecture, Christian Worldview from Alphacrucis College. Accessed 18 June 2020.

Buchanan, Grant. “What is the Church?” Lecture notes, THE001 Moodle, Alphacrucis College.

Coetzee, Narelle Jane. “Wild God in the Wilderness: Why Does Yahweh Choose to Appear in the Wilderness in the Book of Exodus?” PhD diss., University of Birmingham, 2016.

Dostoevsky, Fyodor. Crime and Punishment. Translated by Constance Garnett. Edited by William Allan Neilson. New York, NY: P. F. Collier & Son, 1917.

Felker-Jones, Beth. Practicing Christian Doctrine: An Introduction to Thinking and Living Theologically. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2014. ProQuest Ebrary.

Graieg, David. Review of Communal Reading in the Time of Jesus, by Brian Wright. Journal of Gospels and Acts Research 2 (2018): 135–137. 

Greenberger, M., et al. Networks for Research and Education: Sharing of Computer Information Resources Nationwide. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1974. 

Grey, Jacqueline. Them, Us and Me: How the Old Testament Speaks to People Today. Sydney, NSW: APPS & SCD Press, 2007. 

Hovey, Kevin G. "Guiding Light: Contributions of Alan R. Tippett Toward the Development and Dissemination of Twentieth-Century Missiology." PhD diss., Alphacrucis College, Sydney, 2017.

Hovey, Kevin G. Guiding Light: Contributions of Alan R. Tippett Toward the Development and Dissemination of Twentieth-Century Missiology. Eugene, OR: Pickwick Publications, 2019.

Hutchinson, Mark and K. Handley. A Humane Reckoning: From Accounting to Accountability at Macquarie, 1964-2014. North Ryde: Editorial Collective, 2014. 

Jesus of Montreal. Directed by Denys Arcand. Centre National de la Cinématographie (CNC), 1989. DVD.

Kidson, Lyn M. "Fasting, Bodily Care, and the Widows of 1 Timothy 5:3–15." Early Christianity 11 (2020), 1-15.

Konz, DJ. "The Even Greater Commission: Relating the Great Commission to the Missio Dei, and Human Agency to Divine Activity, in Mission." Missiology: An International Review 46, no. 4 (2018): 333-349.

“Mongolia.” In Encyclopedia of Christianity in the Global South. Edited by Mark A. Lamport, 536-539. Lanham, MA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2018. 

O'Keefe, Dean. "Vision and Strategic Planning." Lecture, Introduction to Leadership at Alphacrucis College. Adelaide, SA, May 27, 2020.

O'Keefe, Dean. "Vision and Strategic Planning." Lecture notes, LEA001 Introduction to Leadership. Alphacrucis College, Adelaide, SA, May 27, 2020.

Pannenberg, Wolfhart. Basic Questions in Theology: Volume One. Translated by George H. Kelm. London: SCM, 1970. 

Perry, David. Spirit Baptism: The Pentecostal Experience in Theological Focus. Leiden: Brill, 2017.

Service, Jacqueline. "The Australian Election: A Moment or a Movement?" Tear Australia. Accessed June 17, 2020.

Thornton, Daniel. "What On Earth Are We Singing? 2019 Report Gives Snapshot." Eternity. January 20, 2020. 

Trible, Phyllis. God and the Rhetoric of Sexuality. Philadelphia, PA: Fortress, 1978. Kindle.

The Two Popes. Directed by Fernando Meirelles. Netflix: 2019.