How to Reference in Turabian

This resource provides information on how to reference, using the formatting of the Turabian 9th Edition, 2018 (notes-bibliography). The Turabian style is a companion to the Chicago style manual, which is currently in its 17th edition.

When you have read through the instructions and examples, you can check out this Sample Essay using Turabian from Liberty University.

Using Footnotes

It is highly recommended that you utilise the automatic footnoting function in Word, rather than trying to manually create footnotes. 

NOTE: Footnotes can include more than one reference within the same footnote. Placing footnotes side by side can be confusing (e.g. 12 could be 1 and 2, or 12) or distracting (e.g. if you want to cite five sources16,17,18,19,20,21). Instead, you can incorporate the references into the same footnote, separated by a semi-colon (;), e.g. 

1Grey, Them, Us & Me, 172; Greenberger, Networks for Research and Education, 35; Konz, "The Even Greater Commission," 338.

Inserting Footnotes in Word

There are tools in your Word processing software to make footnoting easier. 

In Microsoft Word:

  1. Place your cursor where you want the footnote to go (usually, this will be at the end of the sentence).
  2. Click on "Insert" in the Toolbar menu.
  3. Scroll down to "Footnote..." and click "Insert."
  4. Follow the instructions provided in this manual to enter the correct bibliographical references.

You will then find that a superscript number has been inserted in your text, and that you can write in the footer of your document the citation details. 

Alternatively, click on the "References" tab and select "Insert Footnote".

This tool is very easy to use. Another feature of this tool is that if you cut and paste a sentence within your paper which has a footnote citation, it will automatically cut the footnote and paste it in the footer with the sentence. It will even re-order the superscript numbers for you and put the citation in the correct placement in the footer. 

To make referencing even easier, we highly recommend the use of referencing programs such as Zotero (instructions in the next section). Using this tool, you only need to insert all the correct information and it will generate the references correctly for you. View the next section How to Use Zotero for more instructions.